Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Recent Working Papers by V.V. Krishna, CSSP

V.V. Krishna, Sujit Bhattacharya (2009)
Internationalisation of R&D and Global Nature of Innovation: Emerging Trends in India
ARI Working Paper Series, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore #WPS 123
Abstract: The corporate model of R&D pursued within home country locations of the corporate firm is fast eroding. Important magazines such as The Economist (3 March 2007, p69) has begun to talk about, 'The rise and fall of corporate R&D'. The internet and telecommunication revolutions have dismantled geographical barriers creating a new innovation potential at different levels of value chain which are now dispersed at different locations. The Asian region has come to occupy a significant space in these trends. India and China are becoming major locations for off-shore R&D and innovation affiliations. The last decade witnessed two trends in the pattern of global science and technology systems in the Indian context. The first concerns the internationalisation of R&D and the second the increasingly global nature of innovation.
This paper explores three main issues in the Indian context. Firstly, it explores the significant changes in the macro economic and science and technology policies which have propelled changes during the last decade and a half. Secondly, through various indicators the paper maps the growth of internationalization of R&D and global nature of innovation. Thirdly, the paper explores the context of innovation to see whether these trends signify a 'new international division of labor' between North and South or whether there is a significant transformation underway for global nature of innovation.
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V.V. Krishna, Nimesh Chandra (2009)
Knowledge Production and Knowledge Transfer: A Study of Two Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT, Madras and IIT, Bombay)
ARI Working Paper Series, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore #WPS 121
Abstract: Institutions of higher education engaged in teaching and research have come to occupy an important place in the knowledge production and knowledge transfer. These institutions are now seen as frontiers of innovation and in capitalizing knowledge assets contributing to economic progress, and aiding national economies in international competitiveness. In this paper two Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) are taken up for case studies.
IITs in India have evolved as country's leading engineering institutions over the last six decades. The structure of teaching courses and research in IITs, right from the beginning, has drawn inspiration from the MIT model. Over the last six decades, Indian IITs have acquired international recognition and a 'brand name' for excellence in teaching and producing quality engineering and science graduates. Through 'human capital' and research contribution, IITs have come to occupy a significant position in the Indian national innovation system, particularly during the last decade. The two institutions explored in this study, namely IIT Madras and IIT Bombay, are clear examples of the IIT system as whole.
The major objective in this paper is to explore knowledge production and knowledge transfer in these two institutions. Our focus is laid on the ways in which institutional structures have progressed over the last decade or so to foster and promote university-industry linkages and enterprise creation. Secondly, our concern has been to explore the extent to which the Indian IITs have embraced entrepreneurial university 'culture' or still uphold the values of 'Humboldtian Model' of teaching and research excellence. Thirdly, to explore how the two institutes differ in the processes of knowledge transfer and enterprise creation.
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