Research and Innovation in South African Universities: from the Triple Helix's Perspective
Swapan Kumar Patra & Mammo Muchie, Scientometrics, 2018, Doi: 10.1007/s11192-018-2764-0
Abstract: This study explores the research and innovation in South African universities within the triple-helix framework. Patents and publications data have been used as output indicators to map the R&D activities of South African universities. The study observed that universities are the most prolific publishers and constitute about 91% of total South African publications. However, universities altogether produce only about 14% of total South African patents. Only a few universities are responsible for both patenting and publication portfolio of South Africa. The collaboration patterns from joint patents show that only about 19% patents are collaborative patents. South African public research institutes are more active in joint patents with universities followed by the foreign universities but local firms are less active in collaborative patents. The similar trends are observed in co-authored articles also. The study recommends that collaboration between universities and local firms need to be strengthened to develop technological capabilities in South Africa. South African universities need to collaborate more with the industries, particularly the local industries or institutes to achieve the 'entrepreneurial university' in terms of patents and technology transfer.
Keywords: South African universities, Triple helix, Industry–academia, linkages Social network analysis, Patents, Scientometrics